ERA partner Jimi Sol explain how nature cools

A Quick Summary

Nature plays a pivotal role in cooling the Earth, with plants being central to this process. Through transpiration, they release water vapor, which cools the air and aids in cloud formation. This mechanism is crucial in countering the urban heat island effect, where non-vegetated areas like cities absorb more heat. Water itself helps to regulate temperature by absorbing heat without raising air temperatures. However, greenhouse gases trap heat near the Earth, exacerbating global warming. Reflective surfaces (albedo) help by bouncing back solar energy, aiding in cooling. Vital too are diverse ecosystems such as forests, grasslands, and marine environments, which offer benefits beyond cooling, including carbon sequestration, flood mitigation, and biodiversity preservation. Holistically nurturing these ecosystems is essential for maintaining Earth’s climate health and addressing the challenges of climate change.

What makes the earth warmer? Dig deeper.

The earth is getting hotter. We know C02 is like a blanket, and heat comes from the sun, but there is more to the story. The paper “Heat Planet: Biodiversity, the Solar Interface and Climate Disruption” explores the intricate relationship between biodiversity, urban heat islands, and climate change. It challenges the traditional focus on greenhouse gases as the sole cause of climate disruption, emphasizing instead the role of solar energy absorption by different surfaces. The author, Christopher Haines, argues for a broader consideration of heat generation through urbanization and the destruction of biodiversity, which reduces natural cooling mechanisms. By integrating ecological regeneration and innovative urban planning, the paper suggests a hopeful path toward mitigating climate disruption, advocating for a shift in focus to local solutions that can have immediate impacts. Read the full paper here on our website, or download the PDF.

Christopher also gave a presentation on the paper at our Blessed Unrest conference:

Key Concepts Explained

Transpiration as a Natural Cooling Process

Plants absorb water through their roots and release it as vapor through their leaves in a process called transpiration. This not only cools the forest like sweat cools the body, but also contributes to cloud formation and atmospheric cooling. For example, the Amazon rainforest is cooler than nearby farmlands due to transpiration.

Solar Radiation Conversion and Heat Islands

Plants convert solar radiation into energy, while non-vegetative surfaces like buildings and roads turn it into heat, contributing to urban heat islands. This effect is not limited to cities; it occurs anywhere vegetation is absent.

Water’s Role in Heat Regulation

Water absorbs heat and converts it into latent heat, contributing to higher humidity without raising temperature. This process helps in stabilizing temperatures and reducing heat stress in the environment.

Greenhouse Gases and Heat Retention

Greenhouse gases trap heat generated by Earth’s surface, a process akin to a lid on a pot retaining heat from a burner. This contributes to global warming and climate change.

Albedo and Energy Reflection

Albedo measures the level of energy reflection by a surface. High albedo surfaces reflect more solar energy, thereby reducing heat absorption. However, this doesn’t indicate the form that non-reflected energy takes, which can contribute to warming.

Hydration and Vegetation as Cooling Solutions

Actively hydrating landscapes and increasing vegetation cover are key strategies for cooling. They reduce local heat-generating surfaces, leading to immediate local cooling and potentially affecting global weather patterns.

Ecosystem Services in Climate Regulation

Healthy ecosystems like forests, grasslands, and marine habitats provide numerous climate-regulation services. They not only cool the atmosphere but also support biodiversity, prevent erosion, and mitigate floods.

Cloud Formation and Climate Stabilization

Plants, especially forests, produce condensation nuclei that help in cloud formation. This shifts heat from ground level to higher altitudes, where it can radiate back into space, thus cooling the Earth.

Carbon Sequestration in Ecosystems

Plants absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide for growth, sequestering carbon in their biomass and soil. This process is particularly effective in grasslands and wetlands, which are efficient at building soil and storing carbon.

Marine Ecosystems in Climate Regulation

Oceans cover two-thirds of the planet and play a crucial role in climate regulation. Marine plants, algae, and cyanobacteria contribute to cloud formation and sequester carbon, particularly in the form of calcium carbonate in shells.

Holistic Approaches to Ecosystem Restoration

Efforts to reforest or restore ecosystems must be holistic, considering the entire ecosystem’s health, not just carbon sequestration. Healthy ecosystems provide a range of services, including cooling, that are not replicated in monoculture plantations or improperly managed reforestation projects.


Depaving involves the removal of unnecessary concrete, asphalt, and other impermeable surfaces to restore the land to a natural state. This process helps in managing stormwater, reducing the urban heat island effect, and increasing green space. Depaving not only promotes the absorption of rainwater into the ground, aiding in replenishing groundwater reserves, but also supports urban agriculture and community gardens. The concept is gaining traction in cities aiming to increase permeable surfaces and green areas, enhancing both environmental health and urban aesthetics.

No Bare Ground

The principle of ‘no bare ground’ emphasizes maintaining continuous vegetation cover on land to prevent soil erosion, retain moisture, and improve soil health. This approach includes practices like mulching and the use of ground cover plants. By avoiding exposed soil, this method significantly reduces water runoff and soil erosion, enhances biodiversity, and contributes to carbon sequestration. It’s especially important in agricultural and landscaped areas, where bare ground can lead to soil degradation and increased heat absorption.

Cover Crops Between Rows

Planting cover crops between rows of main crops is a sustainable agricultural practice that enhances soil quality, prevents erosion, and manages weeds. These crops, often grasses or legumes, are not harvested but are left to grow to cover the soil. They add organic matter to the soil, improve its structure, and increase its fertility. This practice also helps in water conservation and can disrupt the lifecycle of pests, reducing the need for chemical pesticides. Cover crops play a crucial role in sustainable farming systems, promoting biodiversity and long-term productivity of the land.